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时间:2021-11-21 09:17 点击次数:
  本文摘要:“Highest stock market EVER! Jobs are roaring back!” boasted Donald Trump in a tweet in December. The US president is the most prominent advocate of the idea that quantity is almost all that counts when it comes to jobs.“史上最牛底位的股票市场!


“Highest stock market EVER! Jobs are roaring back!” boasted Donald Trump in a tweet in December. The US president is the most prominent advocate of the idea that quantity is almost all that counts when it comes to jobs.“史上最牛底位的股票市场!低收入强劲重回!”杰弗里?川普(Donald Trump)上年十二月发文章夸口称作。认为在低收入层面总数彻底便是一切这类见解的人中,这名美国美国总统是最著名的一位。

But job numbers alone are an increasingly crude barometer of economic health. For workers under pressure from changing technology and globalisation, a new measure is required, based on job quality as much as job quantity.但完全从低收入数据信息来鉴别经济发展身体状况终究更为不精确了。大大的转变的技术性和经济全球化使初入职场人士备受工作压力,因而务必开创一个新的指标值,另外考虑岗位的总数和品质。More subtle politicians have been quick to realise this. Philip Hammond, UK chancellor of the exchequer, referred in his Budget speech in November to a “relentless focus on getting more people into work”. But he added the condition that such work should be “good quality and well paid”.比较灵巧的政治家们快速就观念来到这一点。在上年十一月的开支演讲中,美国财政局重臣菲利浦?哈蒙德(Philip Hammond)谈及了“要不断瞩目于让更为多的人有工作中”。

但他补充了必要条件,即这种工作中理应是“性价比高、薪资丰厚的”。A few days later, the UK government laid out four “grand challenges” of its industrial strategy, including the promotion of artificial intelligence. “Embedding AI across the UK will create thousands of good quality jobs and drive economic growth,” the strategy document insisted.几日后,英国政府诠释了其产业链发展战略的四项“全局性挑戰”,在其中还包含拓张人工智能技术。该发展战略文档否定:“让AI广布仅有美国,将创设很多高品质低收入职位,拓张经济发展持续增长。

”Recent history suggests the UK may be indulging in some wishful thinking. Automation is one of the forces identified by David Autor of MIT as squeezing out “good jobs” — the middle-skilled roles to which “ordinary working people” (to use the politicians’ mantra) would aspire.近些年的状况强调,英国政府有可能要想得太过幸福快乐了。麻省理工大学(MIT)的杰弗里?奥特尔(David Autor)强调自动化技术是把“好工作”排挤掉的能量之一。这儿讲到的“好工作”,就是指“一般劳动者”(这儿借出去政治家们的各不相同)所期待的中等水平技能岗位。

Globalisation is another such pressure. The remainder of the workforce is polarising into high-level managerial and professional posts and low-tier service jobs. Such good jobs as survive demand ever more sophisticated skills.经济全球化则是另一股能量。职场中剩余的员工已经分裂为高级管理和技术专业岗位,及其基层的服务项目职位。

这种仅剩的好工作回绝不具有更为高級的技能。For managers who hold on to their positions, this poses new tests. Rick Wartzman, whose book The End of Loyalty is subtitled “The Rise and Fall of Good Jobs in America”, says the challenge starts with whether to cut jobs, or find ways to reposition staff for the automation revolution.针对挽留岗位的主管们而言,这将带来新的磨练。《忠心仍然》(The End of Loyalty)的创作者瑞克?沃兹曼(Rick Wartzman)讲到,挑戰始自是减缩岗位,還是要想方法重新考虑职工的职位,以适应能力自动化技术改革。

那本书的小标题是“美国好工作的兴衰”(The Rise and Fall of Good Jobs in America)。“Management is about making these kinds of decisions,” he told me. For instance, “[how] to put people, or combinations of people and technology, in the right position to maximise effectiveness. Doing an across-the-board cost-cutting exercise isn’t management.”“管理方法便是要做出这一类的规定,”他对他说我讲到。比如,“(怎样)把人或人与技术性的人组放进合适方向,搭建高效率利润最大化。

推行一套多方位的成本费减缩对策谈不上管理方法。”The Brookings Institution recently looked at 14m “good jobs” in the US and found that their “digital score” — based on the knowledge, skills and tools needed to fulfil those roles — had risen from 29 to 50 between 2002 and 2016, out of a possible score of 100 for the most “digitally intense” occupations. In other words, basic digital skills are now a prerequisite for positions — mechanic, nurse, builder — which traditionally open the door to advancement for the two-thirds of Americans who lack a college degree.前不久,布鲁金斯学好(Brookings Institution)在科学研究美国的1400十万分“好工作”后寻找,这种好工作的“数据技能成绩”——根据遵循这种职位需要的科技知识、技能和专用工具——从二零零二年的29分降低到二零一六年的50分。满分一百分,为“数据流动量”最少的岗位。


换句话说,不具有基础数据技能已沦落主要从事技术工、护理人员、建筑工等岗位的一个前提条件,而传统式上,腊这种工作中的未得到 大学文凭的美国人群中,有三分之二的人有升职机遇。The same challenge is multiplied by many millions in populous, fast-growing countries such as India. One Indian manufacturing tycoon I met just shrugged when I asked whether he felt any responsibility to the staff he would have to lay off as he installed more sophisticated machines in his factories. His response was just one indication that digitalisation could slam the door in the face of many young Indians, who are counting on basic literacy and numeracy to open up decent production line jobs.在印尼等人口非常多、发展趋势迅速的我国里,某种意义的挑戰被放缩了成千上万倍。我回应一位印尼加工制造业巨亨,他在自身加工厂里改装更为技术设备设备时,将迫不得已解雇一些职工,那麼他否觉得对这些人刑事追究?他的对于此事仅仅耸耸肩。

这不过是强调智能化很有可能会断裂了很多印尼年青人工作中道路的征兆之一,这些人相信着靠基础的载入和数学计算来寻找体面地的生产流水线职位。Sometimes, a lack of such skills also blights the future of people forced out of good jobs. In Amy Goldstein’s book Janesville , workers laid off by General Motors flocked to the Wisconsin town’s college to retrain, only for their teachers to discover that some “didn’t even know how to turn [a computer] on”.有时候,缺乏该类技能也不会烧毁这些摧毁好工作的人们的将来。在恩卡?戈尔茨坦(Amy Goldstein)的经典著作《珍斯维尔》(Janesville)中,被通用汽车公司(General Motors)解雇的职工四散至这一堪萨斯州城区的高校进行再次学习培训,結果她们的教师却寻找有的人“乃至会启动(电脑上)”。


One responsibility of future managers is to ensure that this ground-level digital education is made available. “The next phase of the digital skills push needs to add a new, less-glamorous focus on IT basics such as Microsoft Office and basic customer relationship management (CRM) software to the cooler agenda of scaling up the code schools,” Brookings fellow Mark Muro wrote in a blogpost about the think-tank’s report.将来管理者的岗位职责之一是确保职工还有机会获得这类基本数字教育。“拓张数据专业技能的下一阶段,务必在降低编程学校的偏矮上议程安排以外,再加一个新的、不那麼美丽动人的侧重点:微软中国Office等IT基本知识和基础的客户关系管理管理方法(CRM)手机软件,”布鲁金斯学好研究者马可?穆罗(Mark Muro)在一篇有关该智库报告的博闻中提到。The model, says Wartzman, needs to change to one in which managers offer staff opportunities for lifelong learning. Ideally, this should happen on the job, rather than after redundancy, when the efficacy of retraining may be undermined by the general lack of opportunities, as happened to Janesville’s unemployed car workers in the depths of the 2008-09 recession.沃兹曼讲到,当今方式务必更改为管理者为职工获得终身通过自学机遇的方式。

在理想化状况下,这理应再次出现工作中,而不是裁人以后——那类情况下机遇的普遍缺乏很有可能会推进再次学习培训的实际效果,在2008年至二零零九年经济发展相当严重没落阶段,珍斯维尔下岗汽车工人就应对这类情况。The last resort may be to find ways to change the status of what used to be considered poor jobs. In Taiwan, the government successfully improved urban cleanliness by upgrading the “bad job” of street cleaning. It now comes with a salary close to the national average and a decent pension. Public competitions pit “clean teams” from different districts against each other.最终一招是要想方法变化这些历年被强调太差的工作中的影响力。在中国台湾,政府根据提高洗手街道社区这一“怕工作中”的工资待遇,顺利地让城市看起来更为干净整洁。

如今,街道社区清洁工人的薪水已类似中国台湾的平均,并能得到 不错的养老保险金。公共性比赛让各有不同地域的“洗手精英团队”相互开展市场竞争。

It is an idiosyncratic example, but it underlines a point that Trump may want to consider. Creating more jobs is a fine goal; creating better jobs is even finer.这一事例一些相近,但它显出了一个大道理,也许川普不肯用心想一想。建构更强的工作岗位是一个幸福快乐的总体目标;而更为有一点固执的是建构优质的工作岗位。



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